Showing posts with label digestion. Show all posts
Showing posts with label digestion. Show all posts

2016-09-19

Moringa Health Benefits


Never heard of moringa before?
Although this plant was initially discovered for its beneficial properties thousands of years ago, only recently has moringa(sometimes called the Ben oil tree) become known as one of the most impressive herbal supplements to hit the holistic health market.

Moringa is a unique plant because almost all parts of it — leaves, seeds, flowers/pods, stem and roots — can be used as a source for nutrition and its other medicinal properties that fight free radical damage. The most popular medicinal use of moringa, both traditionally and today, involves drying and grinding down the tree’s antioxidant-packed leaves to unlock the most moringa benefits.

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Throughout the world, moringa is used for treating such widespread conditions as:
  • inflammation-related diseases
  • cancer
  • diabetes
  • anemia
  • arthritis and other joint pain, such as rheumatism
  • allergies and asthma
  • constipation, stomach pains and and diarrhea
  • epilepsy
  • stomach and intestinal ulcers or spasms
  • chronic headaches
  • heart problems, including high blood pressure
  • kidney stones
  • fluid retention
  • thyroid disorders
  • low sex drive
  • bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections
Just how strong is moringa?
  • two times the amount of protein of yogurt
  • four times the amount of vitamin A as carrots
  • three times the amount of potassium as bananas
  • four times the amount of calcium as cows’ milk
  • seven times the amount of vitamin C as oranges

Here are the top six proven moringa benefits
  1. Provides Antioxidants and Anti-Inflammatory Compounds
  2. Balances Hormones and Slows the Effects of Aging
  3. Helps Improve Digestive Health
  4. Balances Blood Sugar Levels, Helping Fight Diabetes
  5. Protects and Nourishes the Skin
  6. Helps Stabilize Your Mood and Protects Brain Health

2016-06-30

Ayurveda Secrets to a Healthy Dietary Habits for a Healthy Lifestyle.


As per Ayurveda ALL good health starts with a good digestion; with the proper metabolism of food. Accordingly, the most important for our health is to eat wisely.

Food is medicine when consumed properly. Selection of foods should suit to our physiology, climatic condition and the natural organic grow of the land we live in. It’s important we follow a sattvic(life supporting) routine that enhances digestion, our bodies will reap the benefits and we will find that our days will be happier, healthier and filled with real vitality — at any age.

Here are our must-dos dietary habits as per Ayurveda:
  • Eat naturally intelligent foods. Don’t choose processed foods, genetically-modified foods, and foods to which artificial preservatives or other synthetic chemicals have been added. Our bodies possess the natural intelligence to process the foods that are closest to nature, such as fresh whole grains and organically-grown fruits and vegetables. We have evolved as a species over millions of years eating whole, natural foods. It is just in the last few hundred years that artificial ingredients and toxic pesticides have been introduced into the food chain. It is no wonder that the incidence of cancer has exploded in the last few centuries. Whenever possible, choose organic, unprocessed foods.
  • Cancer is a symptom of a toxic environment- Remember “Cancer is caused by a toxic environment, including our food supply. It is the body's response to toxicity. When our bodies are thrown out of balance due to long-term exposure to toxins and from living an unhealthy lifestyle, the result is cancer. According to Ayurveda, cancer is one of the most extreme expressions of imbalance in the body. The social and long-term cure for cancer is cleaning up our environment and food chain. How we sow, so shall we reap. When we toxify our mother earth, the result is that our bodies become toxic.
  • “Let’s pursue what is in our control - Living a balanced lifestyle, getting adequate rest, staying hydrated so our bodies can rid themselves of impurities, getting some form of reasonable exercise and eating pure foods are all in our control and are something we can do to help stay healthy.”
  • Shun food fads, and inculcate the same in your growing kids. Each year there are fad diets that come with media hype of new research on certain foods, drinks, or a new diet that is “guaranteed” to work. Keeping up with the latest on what to eat, how, or when, can be a challenge. Ayurveda is the ancient science of whole living, not a fad. It has been around for over 3,000 years, is time tested and individualized in its approach. As per Ayurveda, our body is intelligent enough to signal us what it needs. Choose your food based on what your body accepts and digests better. Eat seasonal fruits and vegetables and natural organic food that is reaped of that region as per the climatic conditions.
  • Opt for lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, not only for their nutritional value, but also because they are good natural internal cleansers. Start your day with apples, bananas or pears. Eat a handful of berries or citrus fruits for your mid-afternoon snack. For a variety of Ayurveda recipes, visit our recipes page!
  • Ayurveda recommends bio available food. Cook your veggies rather than eating them raw. Although raw veggies “may” contain more vitamins and nutrients, they can be harder for our bodies to metabolize. So best is to steam/sautee; in either case, room has been created in its cellular structure for our enzymes to penetrate and much more quickly digest it. If you are a salad eater, try eating your raw veggies at lunch, giving your body plenty of time to digest your food. During the early afternoon hours when the sun is highest in the sky, our digestive agni is working at its maximum potency. And as the sun goes down, so does our agni. So to burn our largest meal of the day, we eat it at lunch — we add it to our strong digestive fire at noon.
  • Add spices not just for flavor or aroma but for its therapeutic value to any meal. Spices help boost natural immunity, and most of them can rev up our digestion so our bodies are able to absorb and assimilate the nutrients from the foods we eat! If you are new to the world of spices and aren't quite sure what to choose, read through our section of spices.
  • According to Ayurveda, each meal should contain all six flavors: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, astringent, and pungent. The dominance of the flavors will be based on our predominant dosha makeup.
  • Cleanse your system for proper digestion. The build-up of ama — digestive toxins resulting from improper digestion — in the physiology is, according to Ayurveda, the root cause of most disorders. Read through our Ayurvedic Detox Diet Improper digestion can be the result of a few habits:
    • Eating late in the evening when the body is ready for rest and not prepared for the heavy work of digestion. Eat a lighter, well-cooked meal at least three hours before bed, and try to be in bed around 10:00 p.m. or before.
    • Eating raw veggies or heavy meals in the evening that are harder to digest.
    • Having weak digestion, due to an imbalance, or due to stress in our lives.
    • Poor hydration. When the body is not hydrated, it cannot remove impurities from the lymph system properly. Blood production and flow may be negatively affected, possibly inhibiting our body’s ability to carry and maintain oxygen and nutrients.
  • Body cleansing is recommended during change of seasons, to detox and rid the body of ama, is recommended for optimal health. Detoxing is particularly recommended in the early spring, because that is the time nature starts the annual cycle of regeneration as well. During cleansing, we can eat light, yet nourishing foods such as mung bean soup or kichari, and drink lots of warm water through the day. Sip detox tea. Fresh, sweet juicy fruits are excellent cleansers.
  • Choose to drink what’s good for your health! Don't start your day with bed tea. Start with lukewarm water, that’s most basic yet most overlooked drink — drinking lots of warm water through the day helps to re-hydrate our system and flush toxins out of the body. Morning should include green tea or lemon water with honey. Try avoid caffeine, alcohol and carbonated soft drinks, and switch to life-giving, vitality-boosting beverages. Avoid drinking ice-cold water, especially before, during and after meals.When we drink ice-cold water, it slows blood flow in the region of the stomach and slows the action of digestive enzymes. Blood flow and digestive enzymes are directly responsible for strong digestion, and anything we can do to support blood flow and enzyme action will help our digestion — “help, don’t hinder.”
  • If you are tea drinker switch to therapeutic Herbal Teas, Green Teas, Fruit Infusions that not only offer comfort any time of the day or night, but more importantly, they are specifically formulated according to the ancient records of Ayurveda and have the balancing effect described for each one.
  • Cultivate good eating habits- Our busy lifestyles can lead us to eat on the go, eat while working, skip meals or eat "junk" foods. However, Ayurveda holds the belief that we can add life to our years and years to our lives by following a good eating routine. This healthy Ayurveda routine includes: eating three regular meals at about the same time each day; making lunch the main meal of the day (heavy dinners can tax digestion and disrupt sleep); and cooking and eating fresh food. Leftovers are considered less sattvic than fresh foods, and when convenient to do so are best avoided. To understand better how we should eat read " Right Way of Eating Meals as per Ayurveda"
  • Balanced health goes beyond physical wellness to well-being in mind, spirit, emotions and senses as well. The food we eat can nourish our mind, body and emotions, not just our body.
  • Cooking and eating in a harmonious atmosphere turns food into nectar. A pleasant, tidy, cheerful environment and the nurturing company of friends or family will actually make mealtimes more nourishing.

And finally……Remember, according to Ayurveda, we metabolize with all five senses? We don’t metabolize just our food….everything we hear, touch, see, taste and smell becomes part of us, so choose wisely and live a healthier life.

2014-06-30

Indian Bay Leaf Health Benefits

Indian Bay Leaf also called Tej Patta (तेजपत्ता)) in Hindi, Malabar leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark or Tamala cassia. It is a tough, three-veined leaf that is popular in India and used in Indian cooking and for preparing perfumes. It is a small to moderately sized ever green tree. The three veined leaf is elliptical, pointed, smooth and tough. The flavor and fragrance is similar to the cinnamon bark but slightly milder. The leaves are used either fresh, dried (both whole leaves or powdered form. Oil is also extracted (Bay leaf oil) to treat such ailments.

Tej Patta or bay leaf has antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, carmiative, diaphoretic, diuretic and astringent properties. The various benefits of bay leaf can be attributed to its rich nutritional value. These leaves are exceptionally rich in vitamins as well as copper, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, selenium and manganese. They also contain essential phytochemicals and volatile oils.

Health Benefits of Bay Leaf:
Bay leaf helps in the treatment of diabetes, migraine, gastric ulcers, abdominal pain, colic pain, bacterial and fungal infection and high blood pressure. It maintains the sugar level of blood, pulse rate and blood pressure. It improves the immune system of the body. It works as an antidote to poison. Tej patta is used to treat infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts and bay leaf juice promote menstruation.

Natural Treatment of Diabetes
Bay leaves have been found to be effective in treating type 2 diabetes as they cause reduction in blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. To get maximum results, these leaves can be powdered and consumed for 30 days. This will cause a drop in sugar levels in the body as well as regulate the functioning of your heart. This is because the antioxidants in bay leaf enable the body to process insulin more efficiently, thus making it a good choice for diabetics and people with insulin resistance.

Good for Digestion:
Bay leaves are good for promoting digestion and can treat digestive disorders such as heartburn and flatulence. Drinking a concoction of bay leaf tea with hot water can alleviate common digestive disorders like constipation, acid reflux and irregular bowel movements. It contains enzymes that enable the breakdown of proteins, thus making it an excellent spice for non-vegetarian diets. In case of indigestion and bloating, you can take 5 grams of bay leaves, add a piece of ginger and boil this in 200 mil of water till ¼ water remains. Add some honey and consume this twice a day for relief. It also acts as an appetite stimulant if you are recovering from illness.

Treatment of Cold and Infection:
Bay leaves are effective in fighting the symptoms of cold, flu and infections. In case of respiratory problems, boil water and add 2 to 3 bay leaves. Allow it to steam for 10 minutes. Soak a cloth in this water and place it on your chest to alleviate flu, cold and cough. Bay leaf tea is effective in reducing fever. In case of repeated sneezing, boil some bay leaves in 200 ml water till ¼ remains. Strain and drink this concoction.

Relieves Pain:
The oil extracted from bay leaf has anti-inflammatory properties which can ease the pain resulting from sprains, strains, arthritis, rheumatism as well as general pains and aches. Massaging your temples with bay leaf oil helps to relieve migraines and headaches. It also boosts circulation and promotes a feeling of well-being. In case of joint pain, you can make a poultice of ground bay leaves and castor leaves, and tie it around the inflamed joints to reduce pain and swelling. In case of headache, you can boil a few bay leaves in water for a few minutes. Strain and drink this concoction while it is still hot. You can apply a paste of bay leaves on your forehead to get relief from severe headache.

Treatment of Menstrual Problems:
Bay leaves, when taken orally, can induce regular and normal menstruation. They also have the property of curing vaginal discharge.

Blood Circulation
The oil extracted from the leaves can be applied over the body. This promotes blood circulation in the body.

Induces Sleep:

Consuming bay leaves at bedtime helps to induce proper sleep. For this purpose, mix a few drops of the bay leaf extract with water and consume it.

Treatment of Nosebleed:
In case of nosebleed, crush 2 to 3 fresh or dry bay leaves. Boil them in 200 ml water till 100 ml remains. Strain and drink this concoction for relief.

Clean Teeth:
To get sparkling white teeth, brush them with powdered bay leaves once in 3 days.

Treatment of Kidney Problems:
Bay leaves help in treating kidney infections and even kidney stones. For this purpose, boil 5 grams bay leaves in 200 ml water till 50 ml water remains. Strain and drink this twice daily. This will stop the formation of kidney stones.

Treatment of Dandruff and Hair Loss:
A rinse made from infused bay leaves is effective in treating dandruff. Bay leaf tea is considered a great remedy for hair loss. Bay leaf oil is a tonic for hair that effectively combats dandruff and hair loss.

Where to buy Indian Bay Leaves? You will find them in the spices and herb isle of Indian grocery stores and most Asian grocery stores. Indian bay leaves are often confused with Bay laurel leaves. Bay laurel leaves have a single vein running down the center while Indian bay leaves have three veins.

You can also buy them online.



How to Store Bay Leaves
Bay leaves can be plucked from the plants and dried in the shade. The leaves should not be exposed to direct sunlight. The dried leaves can be stored in closed jars or containers. They should not be exposed to strong light. The leaves can be stored and used up to one year. Beyond that, they lose the essential components.

2014-03-29

Pitta: The Energy of Digestion and Metabolism

Pitta types have many of the qualities of fire. When out of balance, they can become very agitated and short-tempered. The pitta body type is one of medium height and build, with ruddy or coppery skin. They may have many moles and freckles. Their skin is warm and less wrinkled than vata skin. Their hair tends to be silky and they often experience premature graying or hair loss. Their eyes are of medium size and the conjunctiva is moist. The nose is sharp and the tip tends to be reddish.

Those with pitta-dominant constitutions have a strong metabolism, good digestion and strong appetites. They like plenty of food and liquids and tend to love hot spices and cold drinks. However, their constitution is balanced by sweet, bitter and astringent tastes. Pitta people’s sleep is sound and of medium duration. They produce large quantities of urine and feces, which tend to be yellowish, soft and plentiful. They perspire easily and their hands and feet stay warm. Pitta people have a lower tolerance for sunlight, heat and hard physical work.

Mentally, pitta types are alert and intelligent and have good powers of comprehension. However, they are easily agitated and aggressive and tend toward hate, anger and jealousy when imbalanced. In the external world, pitta people like to be leaders and planners and seek material prosperity. They like to exhibit their wealth and possessions. Pitta people tend to have diseases involving the fire principle such as fevers, inflammatory diseases and jaundice. Common symptoms include skin rashes, burning sensation, ulceration, fever, inflammations or irritations such as conjunctivitis, colitis or sore throats.

Since the attributes of pitta are oily, hot, light, mobile, dispersing and liquid, an excess of any of these qualities aggravates pitta. Summer is a time of heat, the pitta season. Sunburn, poison ivy, prickly heat and short tempers are common. These kinds of pitta disorders tend to calm down as the weather gets cooler. The diet and lifestyle changes emphasize coolness—cool foods, avoidance of chilies and spices, and cool climates. People with excessive pitta need to exercise at the coolest part of the day.

Dietary Considerations
General food guidelines for pacifying pitta include avoiding sour, salty and pungent foods. Vegetarianism is best for pitta people and they should refrain from eating meat, eggs, alcohol and salt. To help calm their natural aggressiveness and compulsiveness, it is beneficial to incorporate sweet, cooling and bitter foods and tastes into their diets.

Barley, rice, oats and wheat are good grains for pitta dominant individuals and vegetables should form a substantial part of their diet. Tomatoes, radishes, chilies, garlic and raw onions should all be avoided. In fact, any vegetable that is too sour or hot will aggravate pitta, but most other vegetables will help to calm it. Daikon radishes are cleansing for the liver when pitta is in balance but should be avoided otherwise. Salads and raw vegetables are good for pitta types in the spring and summer as are any sweet fruits. Sour fruits should be avoided with the exception of limes, used sparingly.

Animal foods, especially seafood and eggs, should only be taken in moderation by pitta types. Chicken, turkey, rabbit and venison are all right. All legumes except red and yellow lentils are good in small amounts, with black lentils, chickpeas and mung beans being the best.

Most nuts and seeds have too much oil and are heating for pitta. However, coconut is cooling and sunflower and pumpkin seeds are all right occasionally. Small amounts of coconut, olive and sunflower oils are also good for pitta.

Sweet dairy products are good and include milk, unsalted butter, ghee and soft, unsalted cheeses. Yogurt can be used if it is blended with spices, a little sweetener and water. In fact, pitta people can use a sweetener better than the other two doshasbecause it relieves pitta. However, they should avoid hot spices, using cardamom, cinnamon, coriander, fennel and turmeric predominantly, with small amounts of cumin and black pepper.

Coffee, alcohol and tobacco should be completely avoided although the occasional beer may be relaxing for a pitta person. Black tea may also be used occasionally with a little milk and a pinch of cardamom.

General guidelines for balancing pitta:
  1. Avoid excessive heat 
  2. Eat cooling, non-spicy foods
  3. Avoid excessive oil 
  4. Exercise during the cooler part of the day
  5. Avoid excessive steam 
  6. Limit salt intake 

2014-02-21

Infant or Baby Constipation Home Remedies

Baby Constipation
Babies or infants have their own pattern of bowel movements depending upon their foods, activity and digestion abilities. However, if your child gets constipation, you get to know it if s/he does not have a bowel movement in 3 or more days or has hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass. Treatment for baby constipation can be done by using certain home remedies. Here is a list of such constipation remedies for providing relief to your baby.
  • If your baby has just started taking solid  baby food, it might be a cause of constipation as these foods are low in fiber. Request your doctor to change the baby food brand that might help in constipation treatment of your baby.  With consultation of doctor, switch from rice cereal to barley or oat cereal, or you might add pureed fruits or vegetables to regular cereal.
  • If your baby crawls, motivate her to do a few laps and if she isn't crawling, try pumping her legs gently. This will give her some exercise.
  • Dehydration can be one of the causes for your baby's constipation. Increase the amount of fluid which will also keep her stools soft.
  • Give 1 ounce of prune juice diluted with equal amount of water, twice a day. Alternatively, give  apple juice to your baby.
  • Rub the area surrounding baby's anus with a considerably warm cloth. This helps in relaxing the muscles and allows gas and other matter to escape.
  • Mix a capful of corn syrup in your baby's food to get rid of constipation.
  • Soak 1 tsp Psyllium Husk or Isabgol in a cup of water. Feed 1-2 spoon of this liquid in the food that you give to your baby. This can even be used as a precautionary method for avoiding constipation in babies.
  • Avoid such foods as rice cereal and bananas as they may aggravate constipation. Instead give your baby prunes, apricots, or pears.
  • Soak 6-8 raisins (kishmish) in hot water (depending on the age). When crushed and given routinely even to little infants, it helps to regulate bowel movement (however care should be taken so as not to give too much otherwise the child will get loose motions.)
  • Rub the Vaseline on the baby's bottom. This not only will loosen up the area, but will also help the stool to come out. Be prepared for the stool to come!
  • Apply Castor oil/ Coconut oil to the Anus region of the Baby, so that it doesn't pain for the baby while passing motion and the hard motion easily slips out. Use a cotton bud to apply and don't use your finger else you may hurt the baby with your nail.
  • Ask your health care provider about the use of flax oil as a relief aid for constipation. Often, a teaspoon of flax oil added to formula may help treat constipation in baby.
  • A Warm Bath with Baking Soda
Directions:
Prepare bath as normal. Make sure to make the water warm but not hot. The baby will appreciate the semi warm bath. Add in a couple teaspoons of baking soda and mix fully before putting the baby inside the bath. Let the baby soak for up to ten minutes before taking them out. This can be repeated a couple times a week if necessary.

2014-02-14

Understanding Digestive Disorders as per Ayurveda


According to Ayurveda consumption of food which is inextricably linked with digestion and its subsequent functioning or malfunctioning, the cause of improper functioning of the digestive system lies in the improper eating habits. Improper or imbalanced indulgence of senses which gives way to wrong eating habits serves to upset the all important digestive structure. Unhealthy eating manners triggered by the wrong use of senses aid to upset the physiological balance.

'Vata', 'Pitta', and 'Kapha' the natural substances included in human physiology are terribly disturbed on account of digestive disorders; the cause of which lies in the indulgent use of senses. Consumption of uncooked food items, oily stuffs and those enriched with moisture serve to bring about imbalance in the composition of air, bile and phlegm. While raw and uncooked food serves to upset 'vata'; oily and rich food upsets 'pitta' or bile. On the other hand, consumption of cold and moisture based food items puts phlegm or 'kaphya' into imbalance.

Ayurveda upholds the essential link between metabolism and digestion. According to it 'Jatharagni' an essential digestive fire plays significant role in digestion and assimilation by way of its direct participation in catabolism which serves to break down food particles in order to bring about digestion. 'Samanya Vayu' an important constituent of 'vata' or air also facilitates digestion by making for the absorption of nutrients. It seeks to relate 'jatharagni' and 'samanya vayu'; with both being directly proportional to one another. If the former facilitates the breaking down of food particles; then only the latter will make for the absorption of the vital nutrients.

Besides the above mentioned digestive facilitators; the other facilitators include 'Apana vayu', 'Kledak kaphya'and 'Pachyak pitta'. 'Pacyak pitta' is an essential ingredient of the digestive fire which aids in the breaking down of food particles. The second component of 'Apana vayu' controls the passage of undigested elements in forms of toxins and fecal wastes. Kledak kaphya refers to the mucous lining of the organs included in the digestive system. An excessive secretion of this protective mucus is also one of the symptoms of digestive disorders. The other symptoms include bloating, excessive formation of gas, constipation, loose motion and presence of foul smelling breathe. Burning sensation, vomiting and burping also feature amongst the various symptoms of digestive disorders. 'Ama dosha' involving the excretion of sticky mucus is also one of the important symptoms of digestive disorder.

Direct study of the patients' lifestyle in addition to the examination of the manifesting symptoms helps the Ayurved to diagnose the nature and pathogenesis of the digestive disorders. In keeping with the nature and pathogeneses of the digestive disorder; the line of treatment is decided. The treatment administered to overcome the symptoms of digestive disorders; includes both symptomatic and asymptomatic treatment seeking to eradicate the underlying cause. Asymptomatic treatment aims at the rectification of lifestyle and eating related defects. The chief culprit pertaining to faulty eating habits and those pertaining to general hygiene are generally addressed by an Ayurvedic health provider while treating various facets of digestive disorders. In modern times, Ayurveda which is still influential recommends the use of capsules based on herbal contents as remedial measures for digestive ailments.

Ayurveda offers treatment aims at the rectification of lifestyle and eating related defects  as well as herbal products and medicines for the following digestive disorders. However, if you have some chronic disorder and need a customized treatment plan for your problem, you should consult a qualified doctor for consultation.

Types of Digestive Disorders
  1. Gastritis 
  2. Constipation 
  3. Ulcer 
  4. Liver Dysfunction 
  5. Hyperacidity 
  6. Hepatitis/Jaundice 
  7. Indigestion
  8. Piles 
  9. Instestinal Infection

2012-07-03

Benefits of Custard Apple


Custard Apple ( ANNONA SQUAMOSA)

Custard Apple or Seethaphal is a tropical fruit tree that grows easily. It was first culivated in West Indies. Its botanical name is 'ANNONA SQUAMOSA'. It is very popular in India. The pulp of the fruit is mixed with milk to make custard. As it has the taste of custard it is called 'Custard Apple'. The fruit has a peculiar aroma. Custard Apple is used to make Jams, Jellies and sherbets. 

The plant is propogated by grafting as well as through the seeds. Grafted plants produce fruits from the first year itself. The plant usually flowers between March and July. The fruits should be plucked before they are ripe and stored for ripening. 

Custard apple promotes digestion and is used as a cure for vomiting, diarrhoea, dysentry and vertigo. The unripe fruit is dried and powdered and is used as a cure for treating lice. The fruit is low in calorie content and contains minerals like iron, phosphorous, calcium and riboflavin. 

The plant is a evergreen shrub and reaches a maximum of 6 mts. The plant bears flowers in the mature branches and the fruits develop in the mature branches and are usually round. The flesh is white and creamy with a sugary taste. The seeds are black in colour with a shine. The seeds are not consumed for they are slightly poisonous.